These endeavors show that restricting the illicit trade of artifacts does not prevent cultural exchange between nations. On the contrary, it has led to international collaboration and new efforts to educate and spread culture between nations. The traveling exhibition “Vallée du Niger” opened in Paris in 1993 and visited numerous African countries. In 2003, the Smithsonian Festival of Folklife put on an immense exposition of Mali’s culture featuring music, dancing, food, films, arts, and even the appearance of Amadou Toumani Toure, president of Mali. Numerous universities throughout the United States also boast study abroad programs in Mali, including Harvard, Michigan State, Drew University, and Antioch College. Examples such as these show that Mali’s cultural heritage can be part of the world’s cultural heritage through positive forms of exchange.